This is a list of home video game consoles in chronological order, which includes the very first home video game consoles ever created, such as first generation Pong consoles, from the first ever cartridge console Odyssey, ranging from the major video game companies such as Magnavox, Atari, Nintendo, Sega, NEC, 3DO, SNK, Sony, Microsoft to secondary market consoles.
One trait that remains peculiar to the fourth generation is the huge number of exclusive games. Both Sega and Nintendo were very successful and their consoles developed massive libraries of games. Both consoles had to be programmed in assembly to get the most out of them. A game optimized for the Genesis could take advantage of its faster CPU and sound chip. A game optimized for the SNES could take advantage of its graphics and its flexible, clean sound chip. Some game series, like Castlevania, saw separate system exclusive releases rather than an attempt to port one game to disparate platforms. When compact disc (CD) technology became available midway through the fourth generation, each company attempted to integrate it into their existing consoles in different ways. NEC and Sega released CD add-ons to their consoles in the form of the TurboGrafx-CD and Sega CD, but both were only moderately successful. NEC also released the TurboDuo which combined the TurboGrafx-16 and its TurboGrafx-CD add-on (along with the RAM and BIOS upgrade from the Super System Card) into one unit. SNK released a third version of the NeoGeo, the Neo Geo CD, allowing the company to release its games on a cheaper medium than the AES's expensive cartridges, but it reached the market after Nintendo and Sega had already sold tens of millions of consoles each. Nintendo partnered with Sony to work on a CD add-on for the SNES, but the deal fell apart when they realized how much control Sony wanted. Sony would use their work with Nintendo as the basis for their PlayStation game console. While CDs became an increasingly visible part of the market, CD-reading technology was still expensive in the 1990s, limiting NEC's and Sega's add-ons' sales.
Why is Pepe called “monka” on Twitch, though? It seems that Nymn, a popular news broadcaster (and sometimes Hearthstone player) on Twitch, had a subscriber called MonkaSenpai, and monkaS began life as his personal emote (a high honor in any popular Twitch channel). From there, popular Hearthstone streamers added the Pepe to their own channels, and the name “monka” just stuck. It even attached itself to Pepe variations like monkaWut and Megamonka,  It’s not that Twitch streamers are unaware of Pepe—it’s just that he’s “monka” there by tradition.
Home computers have long used magnetic storage devices. Both tape drives and floppy disk drives were common on early microcomputers. Their popularity is in large part because a tape drive or disk drive can write to any material it can read. However, magnetic media is volatile and can be more easily damaged than game cartridges or optical discs.[88] Among the first consoles to use magnetic media were the Bally Astrocade and APF-M1000, both of which could use cassette tapes through expansions. In Bally's case, this allowed the console to see new game development even after Bally dropped support for it. While magnetic media remained limited in use as a primary form of distribution, three popular subsequent consoles also had expansions available to allow them to use this format. The Starpath Supercharger can load Atari 2600 games from audio cassettes; Starpath used it to cheaply distribute their own games from 1982 to 1984 and today it is used by many programmers to test, distribute, and play homebrew software. The Disk System, a floppy disk-reading add-on to the Famicom (as the NES was known in Japan), was released by Nintendo in 1986 for the Japanese market. Nintendo sold the disks cheaply and sold vending machines where customers could have new games written to their disks up to 500 times.[89] In 1999, Nintendo released another Japan-only floppy disk add-on, the Nintendo 64DD, for the Nintendo 64.
Jebaited is the face of well-known fighting game tournament organizer Alex Jebailey, who’s infamous for his enormous ego. According to a comment on Reddit’s OutOfTheLoop, “His ego is so big that he was actually made into a character in the game Divekick, and his head grows in size every time he wins a round.” “Jebaited” is just a funnier way of saying “baited,” as in being tricked into falling for a trap or ruse. Players and viewers can both be “jebaited” in various ways.
Kappa, the most popular (and perhaps most important) emote on Twitch, is a universal indicator for sarcasm or trolling. It’s often pasted at the end of a trolling request for the streamer to make a really bad play or do something dumb on camera, and streamers will sometimes say it out loud when they’re joking. It can also be used as a synonym for a wry “lol,” and this happens fairly often on Twitter.
The Game Console is a tour through the evolution of video game hardware, with gorgeous full-color photos of 86 consoles. You’ll start your journey with legendary consoles like the Magnavox Odyssey, Atari 2600, Nintendo Entertainment System, and the Commodore 64. The visual nostalgia trip continues with systems from the 1990s and 2000s, and ends on modern consoles like the Xbox One, PlayStation 4, and Wii U.
The Nintendo 3DS XL features a C stick for better in-game controls, NFC connectivity, and compatibility with amiibo figures. A Nintendo-rich library of 3DS titles is at your fingertips, headed by a host of Super Mario, Donkey Kong, and Legend of Zelda games. Overall, this is a great option for users who like a high-quality portable gaming experience at a reasonable price point.
Jebaited is the face of well-known fighting game tournament organizer Alex Jebailey, who’s infamous for his enormous ego. According to a comment on Reddit’s OutOfTheLoop, “His ego is so big that he was actually made into a character in the game Divekick, and his head grows in size every time he wins a round.” “Jebaited” is just a funnier way of saying “baited,” as in being tricked into falling for a trap or ruse. Players and viewers can both be “jebaited” in various ways.
You get the name of the emote, the way you can get it (example: Tier 1 Sub Emote, etc.) and an example of a particular streamer's other emotes available by subscribing to them. There's also a link to follow them or go to their channel to learn more. This is a pretty helpful tool, especially since there are so many different emotes floating around on Twitch these days with zero context. You see one you like, and you have no idea of how you can get it other than guessing from its name. This should help lessen the confusion some.
One trait that remains peculiar to the fourth generation is the huge number of exclusive games. Both Sega and Nintendo were very successful and their consoles developed massive libraries of games. Both consoles had to be programmed in assembly to get the most out of them. A game optimized for the Genesis could take advantage of its faster CPU and sound chip. A game optimized for the SNES could take advantage of its graphics and its flexible, clean sound chip. Some game series, like Castlevania, saw separate system exclusive releases rather than an attempt to port one game to disparate platforms. When compact disc (CD) technology became available midway through the fourth generation, each company attempted to integrate it into their existing consoles in different ways. NEC and Sega released CD add-ons to their consoles in the form of the TurboGrafx-CD and Sega CD, but both were only moderately successful. NEC also released the TurboDuo which combined the TurboGrafx-16 and its TurboGrafx-CD add-on (along with the RAM and BIOS upgrade from the Super System Card) into one unit. SNK released a third version of the NeoGeo, the Neo Geo CD, allowing the company to release its games on a cheaper medium than the AES's expensive cartridges, but it reached the market after Nintendo and Sega had already sold tens of millions of consoles each. Nintendo partnered with Sony to work on a CD add-on for the SNES, but the deal fell apart when they realized how much control Sony wanted. Sony would use their work with Nintendo as the basis for their PlayStation game console. While CDs became an increasingly visible part of the market, CD-reading technology was still expensive in the 1990s, limiting NEC's and Sega's add-ons' sales.
A major new addition to the market was the trend for corporations to include a large number of "non-gaming" features into their handheld consoles, including cell phones, MP3 players, portable movie players, and PDA-like features. The handheld that started this trend was Nokia's N-Gage, which was released in 2003 and doubled primarily as a mobile phone. It went through a redesign in 2004 and was renamed the N-Gage QD. A second handheld, the Zodiac from Tapwave, was released in 2004; based on the Palm OS, it offered specialized gaming-oriented video and sound capabilities, but it had an unwieldy development kit due to the underlying Palm OS foundation. With more and more PDAs arriving during the previous generation, the difference between consumer electronics and traditional computing began to blur and cheap console technology grew as a result. It was said of PDAs that they were "the computers of handheld gaming" because of their multi-purpose capabilities and the increasingly powerful computer hardware that resided within them. This capability existed to move gaming beyond the last generation's 16-bit limitations; however, PDAs were still geared towards the typical businessman and lacked new, affordable software franchises to compete with dedicated handheld gaming consoles.
FeelsBadMan and FeelsGoodMan are two of the most popular Pepe the Frog variations, alongside EZ and PepeHands that we’ll get into below. The emote is based on artist Matt Furie’s Pepe the Frog, a longstanding comic character that became co-opted and weaponized by the alt-right during the 2016 election cycle. It’s one of the most recognizable memes on the internet, but Know Your Meme’s Caldwell said its use as an emote on Twitch is particularly interesting. The rest of the world associates Pepe the Frog with political ties, but Caldwell suggests that Twitch’s Pepe use remains largely unpolitical.
In 1990, Nintendo finally brought their Super Famicom to market and brought it to the United States as the Super NES (SNES) a year later. Its release marginalized the TurboGrafx and the Neo Geo, but came late enough for Sega to sell several million consoles in North America and gain a strong foothold. The same year the SNES was released Sega released Sonic the Hedgehog, which spiked Genesis sales, similar to Space Invaders on the Atari. Also, by 1992 the first fully licensed NFL Football game was released: NFL Sports Talk Football '93, which was available only on the Genesis. This impact on Genesis sales and the overall interest of realistic sports games would start the trend of licensed sports games being viewed as necessary for the success of a console in the US. While Nintendo enjoyed dominance in Japan and Sega in Europe, the competition between the two was particularly fierce and close in North America. Ultimately, the SNES outsold the Genesis, but only after Sega discontinued the Genesis to focus on the next generation of consoles.

Why is Pepe called “monka” on Twitch, though? It seems that Nymn, a popular news broadcaster (and sometimes Hearthstone player) on Twitch, had a subscriber called MonkaSenpai, and monkaS began life as his personal emote (a high honor in any popular Twitch channel). From there, popular Hearthstone streamers added the Pepe to their own channels, and the name “monka” just stuck. It even attached itself to Pepe variations like monkaWut and Megamonka,  It’s not that Twitch streamers are unaware of Pepe—it’s just that he’s “monka” there by tradition.


In 1983, Nintendo released the Family Computer (or Famicom) in Japan. The Famicom supported high-resolution sprites, larger color palettes, and tiled backgrounds. This allowed Famicom games to be longer and have more detailed graphics. Nintendo began attempts to bring their Famicom to the U.S. after the video game market had crashed. In the U.S., video games were seen as a fad that had already passed. To distinguish its product from older game consoles, Nintendo released their Famicom as the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) which used a front-loading cartridge port similar to a VCR, included a plastic "robot" (R.O.B.), and was initially advertised as a toy. The NES was the highest selling console in the history of North America and revitalized the video game market. Mario of Super Mario Bros. became a global icon starting with his NES games. Nintendo took a somewhat unusual stance with third-party developers for its console. Nintendo contractually restricted third-party developers to three NES titles per year and forbade them from developing for other video game consoles. The practice ensured Nintendo's market dominance and prevented the flood of trash titles that had helped kill the Atari, but was ruled illegal late in the console's lifecycle.[23]
Kreygasm, an icon of the streamer Kreyg with his mouth open—apparently either shouting in excitement or having an orgasm—indicates great excitement. Basically, you can use it anywhere you would use “Whoa!” or “Holy shit!” Kreygasm is so popular that it’s spawned a whole subgenre of emotes, and several popular streamers have created custom icons of their own “gasm” faces.
In 1996, Nintendo released the Game Boy Pocket: a smaller, lighter unit that required fewer batteries. It has space for two AAA batteries, which provide approximately 10 hours of game play.[41] Although, like its predecessor, the Game Boy Pocket has no backlight to allow play in a darkened area, it did notably improve visibility and pixel response-time (mostly eliminating ghosting).[42] The Game Boy Pocket was not a new software platform and played the same software as the original Game Boy model.[43]

During the sixth generation era, the handheld game console market expanded with the introduction of new devices from many different manufacturers. Nintendo maintained its dominant share of the handheld market with the release in 2001 of the Game Boy Advance, which featured many upgrades and new features over the Game Boy. Two redesigns of this system followed, the Game Boy Advance SP in 2003 and the Game Boy Micro in 2005. Also introduced were the Neo Geo Pocket Color in 1998 and Bandai's WonderSwan Color, launched in Japan in 1999. South Korean company Game Park introduced its GP32 handheld in 2001, and with it came the dawn of open source handheld consoles. The Game Boy Advance line of handhelds has sold 81.51 million units worldwide as of September 30, 2010.[47]


The feature is currently in the works, rolling out to most users, but if you don't have it yet, it's coming to everyone in the coming weeks, according to the official Twitch Twitter account. This is just one of the new features Twitch has been adding recently, as the streaming platform had a great 2018. In the 2018 Twitch Holiday Spectacular, the platform announced that it grew from 2 million streamers in 2017 to more than 3 million in 2018 with close to half a million streamers going live each day.
Once upon a time, people thought they’d be piloting flying cars by the year 2017. Sorry, mom and dad, that didn’t precisely work out. At least we have emoji, though, I guess? Over the past few years, those silly little pictographic symbols have become the international language of posting fire memes and keeping it 100. They can be used sincerely or ironically, an eggplant can be a penis, and you only need one character to spell out “ayy, lmao bruh!”
Game cartridges consist of a printed circuit board housed inside of a plastic casing, with a connector allowing the device to interface with the console. The circuit board can contain a wide variety of components. All cartridge games contain at the minimum, read only memory with the software written on it. Many cartridges also carry components that increase the original console's power, such as extra RAM or a coprocessor. Components can also be added to extend the original hardware's functionality[81] (such as gyroscopes, rumble packs, tilt-sensors, light sensors, etc.); this is more common on handheld consoles where the user does not interact with the game through a separate video game controller.[82] Cartridges were the first external media to be used with home consoles and remained the most common until continued improvements in capacity in 1995 (the Nintendo 64, released in 1996, was the last mainstream game console to use cartridges).[83] Nevertheless, the relatively high manufacturing costs and limited data capacity compared to optical media at the time saw them completely replaced by the latter for home consoles by the early 21st century, although they are still in use in some handheld video game consoles and in the Nintendo Switch. Due to the aforementioned capabilities of cartridges such as more memory and coprocessors, those factors make it harder to reverse engineer consoles to be used on emulators.

It happens to the best of us, and that's why Twitch has introduced a new feature that makes it simpler to learn more about the emotes you can click on in chat. If you see a cool emote that you're unsure of used in a Twitch chat where you're a participant, you can just click on it to open up a window that has all the info you need – well, except what it all means.
All seventh and eighth generation consoles offer some kind of Internet games distribution service, allowing users to download games for a fee onto some form of non-volatile storage, typically a hard disk or flash memory. Recently, the console manufacturers have been taking advantage of internet distribution with games, video streaming services like Netflix, Hulu Plus and film trailers being available.
Fairchild released the Fairchild Video Entertainment System (VES) in 1976. While there had been previous game consoles that used cartridges, either the cartridges had no information and served the same function as flipping switches (the Odyssey) or the console itself was empty (Coleco Telstar) and the cartridge contained all of the game components. The VES, however, contained a programmable microprocessor so its cartridges only needed a single ROM chip to store microprocessor instructions. RCA and Atari soon released their own cartridge-based consoles, the RCA Studio II and the Atari 2600 (originally branded as the Atari Video Computer System), respectively.
Monkas tends to show up often on different streams because it’s relatable. It’s used in a moment of high intense action or something that’s particularly anxiety-inducing. During IRL streams, this may happen during a face-to-face encounter or when a streamer is ranting about something. Chats for gaming streams will see this pop up during stressful gameplay moments, and the chat wants to express that feeling through a visual. Monkas is a pretty relatable emote, and it’s bound to be one you see floating around Twitch.
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